Tuesday, October 27, 2020

George B. Selden is granted the first U.S. patent for an automobile.

 George B. Selden is granted the first U.S. patent for an automobile.

George Baldwin Selden (September 14, 1846, in Clarkson, New York - January 17, 1922, in Rochester, New York) was a patent attorney and inventor who was granted a US patent for an automobile in 1895.  Early life and career In 1859, his father, Judge Henry R. Selden, a prominent Republican attorney best known as the attorney for Susan B. Anthony, moved to Rochester, New York, where George briefly attended the University of Rochester before quitting.  

study and enroll in the 6th Cavalry Regiment.  , Allied Army.  This was not to the taste of his father, who, pulling the strings and having a serious talk with his son, managed to free him from service and enroll him at Yale University.  George did not do well at Yale in his legal studies, preferring the technical studies offered by the Sheffield School of Science, but still managed to complete his course of study and receive the New York Bar in 1871 and joined his father's practice.  Shortly afterward, he married Clara Drake Woodruff, with whom he had four children. 


 He continued his hobby of inventing in a workshop in his father's basement, invented the typewriter and the hoop machine.  For a time, Selden represented photography pioneer George Eastman on patent issues.  Selden patent George B. Selden driving a car in 1905.  See Also: Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers Inspired by the giant internal combustion engine invented by George Brighton, unveiled at the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition, Selden began work on a smaller and lighter version, succeeding in 1878, about eight years before public presentation  Benz Patent Motorwagen in Europe. 


 in the production of a single-cylinder 400 lb. version with an enclosed crankshaft with the help of Rochester mechanic Frank H. Clement and his assistant William Gomme.  He applied for a patent on May 8, 1879 (in the historic cross of the people, Selden's witness was local bank teller George Eastman, who later became famous for his Kodak camera).  Its application included not only the engine but also its use in a 4-wheeled vehicle.

  He then filed a series of amendments to his application that stretched out the lawsuit, leading to a 16-year delay until the patent was granted on November 5, 1895.  Selden's Road Engine (US Patent 549,160) Soon after, the young American auto industry began its first attempts, and George Selden, despite never actually making a working car model, had a compelling claim to patent the car in 1895.  year.  In 1899, he sold his patent rights to William.  K. Whitney, who offered to produce electric taxis as Electric Vehicle Company, EVC, for a fee of $ 15 per car with a minimum annual payment of $ 5,000. 

 Then Whitney and Selden together collected royalties from other up-and-coming car manufacturers.  He initially succeeded by negotiating a royalty of 0.75% on all vehicles sold by the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers.  He founded his own auto company in Rochester called Selden Motor Vehicle Company.  However, Henry Ford, owner of the Detroit, Michigan-based Ford Motor Company in 1903, and four other car manufacturers decided to challenge the patent infringement lawsuit filed by Selden and EVC.

  The litigation lasted eight years, resulting in 14,000 pages registered.  Ford's testimony included the comment: "It's safe to say that George Selden never promoted the automotive industry in one particular case ... and it might have gone further than it is now if he had never been born."  The case was widely reported in the newspapers of the time and ended in Selden's victory.

  In his decision, the judge wrote that the patent applies to any car with a gasoline vapor engine.  Posting bonds in the amount of US $ 350,000, Ford applied, and on January 10, 1911, won the case on the argument that the engine used in the cars was not based on George Brighton's engine, the Brighton engine that Selden improved on, but Otto's.  This staggering defeat, with only one year left to patent, disrupted Selden's revenue stream.  He focused his automotive company’s production on trucks, renaming his company to Selden Truck Sales Corporation. 

 It existed in this form until 1930 when it was bought by the Bethlehem Motor Truck Corporation.  Selden suffered a stroke in late 1921 and died on January 17, 1922, at the age of 75.
  He was buried in Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester.  It is estimated that he received a fee of several hundred thousand dollars.  George B. Selden - 
 Water on the moon :NASA Information about water on the moon

  Water on the moon: NASA Information about water on the moon

Water on the moon: NASA Information about water on the moon


American scientists spoke about an important astronomical discovery, which was announced a week ago.  For the first time, they managed to detect water on the illuminated surface of the Moon, which may have important consequences in light of the upcoming manned missions to the Earth's satellite.

 For many decades, the Moon was considered a largely waterless body.  Only in recent years, observations have shown the presence of deposits of water ice in the circumpolar regions of the Moon - mainly in the eternally shaded large craters, the bottom of which never gets sunlight.

 A few days ago, NASA announced the announcement of an important discovery, which was made using the famous atmospheric observatory SOFIA aboard a wide-body Boeing-747 aircraft, conducting observations in the infrared range.

 With this telescope, scientists first discovered water in Clavia, a huge ancient impact crater located on the southern side of the moon's visible side.

 A number of past observations helped to detect hydrogen atoms in the subsurface layer of the Moon, but scientists had no way to understand whether it is part of water, or the hydroxyl group OH in the composition of some minerals.

 Infrared observations have now made it possible to accurately determine the presence of water at a concentration of 100-412 ppm.  The results of the study are published in the journal Nature Astronomy.

 In August 2018, scientists led by Casey Honniball of the Goddard Space Flight Center monitored the lunar surface using SOFIA instruments and found infrared radiation from the crater and its surroundings at a wavelength of six microns, which corresponds to the waterline.

 “We are not familiar with any other material found on the Moon that has a spectral line of 6 microns, other than water,” explained Hannibal.

 “We had hints that water might be present on the illuminated part of the moon.  Now we know that it is there.  This discovery changes our understanding of the lunar surface and raises intriguing questions about the resources available for exploration of deep space, ”- said Director of Astrophysics NASA Paul Hertz.

 The discovery of small, but sufficient for study, concentrations of water raises questions for scientists about how these molecules could have formed, and most importantly, how water can be stored for a long time under solar irradiation without evaporating.

 According to one version, water can be stored inside the natural lunar volcanic glass or between dust particles.

 As for the origin of water, it could have been brought in in the past by the impact of micrometeorites, which brought with them small portions of water.  According to another version, water could be formed due to hydrogen atoms brought in as part of the solar wind, which when combined with oxygen in the composition of minerals and formed hydroxyl.  Then the energy released by the impact of meteorites could convert the hydroxyl into water.

 To test their findings, the Hannibal team has already received additional observation time on the SOFIA telescope.  “We hope to map most of the Moon to characterize water behavior.  Does it change along the lunar surface over the course of the day and with latitude?  This will help us understand its origin and how it is preserved, ”the expert explained.

 Answers to these questions will help to understand how water can be released in the future, for example, during manned missions.  If the water is contained in the regolith, it is only necessary to collect it and heat it to a certain temperature.  If water is trapped in volcanic glass, this will require the melting of the rock and high energy costs.

 For a telescope, which usually observes such distant objects as black holes, star clusters, and galaxies, observing the moon has become an unusual activity.

 “SOFIA really looked at the moon for the first time, and we weren't even sure we would get reliable data, but questions about lunar water made us give it a try,” said Nasim Rangwala, a researcher at the SOFIA mission.  "It's incredible that the discovery came from essentially a test."

 In another article in the journal Nature Astronomy, scientists, using theoretical models and data from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, showed that water on the Moon can persist not only in previously discovered polar craters but also in small dark areas where the temperature during the lunar day is not understood above the freezing point of ice.

 "Water is an important resource both for scientific purposes and for future researchers," said Jake Bleacher, chief scientist at NASA's Space Research and Operations Administration.  "If we can use the resources of the moon, we can carry less water and more equipment for new scientific discoveries."

 The unique SOFIA observatory, mounted on board a wide-body Boeing-747 aircraft, has been observing since 2010.  Usually, the plane takes to the skies up to four times a week, spending ten hours at an altitude of 12-13 thousand meters.

 The idea of the observatory was simple and tempting - at this altitude, the 2.5-meter telescope in the tail of the plane is over 99% of the water vapor that is present in the atmosphere and interferes with infrared observation.

 The new discovery could be an important achievement for the famous telescope, over which clouds began to gather earlier this year.

 The operation of the aerial observatory is not cheap - about $ 85 million is spent annually on it. And although the German Center for Aviation and Cosmonautics takes over a fifth of it, this project remains one of the most expensive astronomical projects of NASA, second only to the famous Hubble orbiting telescope in maintenance costs.

 Thus, in April, Gazeta.Ru wrote about a scientometric analysis, according to which for 5 years in the period 2014-2018, based on SOFIA observations, astronomers published on average only 21 scientific articles per year, “which makes it one of the least efficient telescopes in the world ".

 Scientists then feared that the fate of the telescope was in question - in February of this year, the Donald Trump administration proposed to close the project, saying that it did not justify the $ 85 million annually allocated for it.

Monday, October 26, 2020

36 laws to achieve anything in your life

 36 laws to achieve anything in your life

36 laws to achieve anything in your life
36 laws to achieve anything in your life

Dear Amazing Soul, Yes, you are amazing, whether obvious or hidden… and you are full of power.


Perhaps your massive inner giant is sleeping, but it is there, I guarantee it.


I am not saying this to flatter you, this is true whether you believe it or not, and it’s never too late to tap this power, grab your life, and live it like a high soaring eagle, full of pride and miraculous accomplishments.


The TITANIC source of power within you is the same power that I have seen small skinny children and seemingly fragile senior citizens use to smash boards with their bare fists!


We can tap this power to smash our obstacles, real and mental, and get what we want in life… wealth, love, health, etc… when we learn how to awaken this unbeatable force, and a sleeping giant.


YOU are the only thing stopping YOU from getting what you want.


Let that sink in a moment, because it is a VERY exciting thought and it’s TRUTH. Your future is in your hands. What will you do with it? What do you want?


Outrageous wealth? Freedom to do what you want? A fit and healthy body? It’s time you let yourself think big… really big.


I want to help you unleash your power, open the flood gates of motivation if you will kindly listen for a moment.


History reveals a wealth of examples of great men and women who have achieved earth-shaking goals, even against incredible odds. Their proven experience shows patterns that are not difficult to imitate and make your own.


But there is a reason why the vast majority never even try… who live bland, wilted lives, about as exciting as burnt toast. And without judgment, it’s healthy to ask, “why do they accept a sad existence that doesn’t even come close to their real potential of a thrilling and inspiring lifestyle of fulfillment”?


To be blunt, why do so many live and die… bored to death?


A great, and courageous man by the name of Anthony De Mello, also known as “The Vatican Censored Jesuit Priest”, shares a challenging story regarding your inner potential, giving the simple reason why the vast majority of people fail to escape mediocrity… as if sleepwalking… doomed to a “spectator” couch-potato boredom, with hazy, distant dreams and an unfulfilled life…


Mr. De Mello, now recognized (after his death) by many thousands as a modern-day saint, was particularly fond of telling this “wake-up call” story…


“An American Indian warrior found alone, unbroken eagle egg on a mountain cliff edge. Not seeing the nest nearby, he took the egg with him and placed it under a brooding chicken in his village to see if it would hatch.”


“When the moment arrived, the little eagle did indeed hatch together with all the fuzzy yellow baby chicks.”


“As time passed, the eagle learned how to ‘cockle-doodle-doo’, to roost, to scratch for little worms and bugs, to jump up to the lowest branches of nearby trees, and to squawk, just like a chicken. His whole life passed in the firm belief that he was a “Big” chicken.”


“One day, now very old, the eagle looked up into the sky, and saw something wondrous. Up there, in the infinite blue, he saw a majestic bird soaring with no apparent effort. The old eagle was deeply impressed at the sight.”


“He turned to the nearest chicken and asked, ‘what amazing bird is that?’. The chicken looked up and said, ‘Oh! That’s a golden eagle, the king of the skies. But don’t bother thinking about it, you and I are here, stuck on the ground, old friend’… and they went back to scratching for worms ”


“The eagle didn’t look up into the sky any longer, and eventually died convinced that he was a chicken. All the others treated him as such; thus he believed, thus he lived, thus he died.”


Break The Mold… You Too Are That Golden Eagle!

Or Do You Prefer To Die One Day As A Chicken?

I don’t mean to insult you (or chickens)… but I do challenge you to examine your life for a moment… there are moments when we are all “chickens”, what’s tragic though, is when we believe that we have no choice, and it becomes a habit, then a way of life that we take to the grave.


This doesn’t have to be the case… and it’s never too late to open our wings and fly!


Here’s a true story to show you the power of our thoughts, towards ourselves and towards helping others to believe in themselves…


A famous American psychologist conducted an incredible test. Do you know what he did? Well, before the end of the school year in a local high school, he had all the graduating students of a class take an intelligence test.


The psychologist then chose the names of 12 students. He then went to each of their professors and said, “these 12 students are very highly gifted individuals, they will participate in your lessons. Next year, you will see, they will all be in the top positions of your class. Please just promise that you won’t say anything about our conversation, as this could have negative impacts on them.”


He Was A Sneaky Fellow

Now, this psychologist was lying! There were not any highly gifted individuals among this “super gifted 12″… he made it up, it was part of his test. He had just chosen them randomly… but the professors didn’t know this.


The psychologist came back a year later to find that something incredible had happened.


Every single one of the “super gifted 12” had increased their intelligence by a minimum of 12 points! Some had increased it by as much as 36 points! And when the psychologist asked the professors what they thought of these “super gifted 12”, immediate adjectives such as, “intelligent, dynamic, full of life, interesting, etc” were a part of the response.


This experiment has been repeated again and again, even with animals, and the result is always the same… even with mice! They always become more than what they were before the test.


These students didn’t change because of outside forces, but because outside forces helped them to believe in themselves!


The opposite is also true, we are conditioned to think like “chickens”, and thus we believe, live, and die… like chickens.


What If We Start To Imitate The Giants Of Success In How They Think And Achieve Things? What If We Start To Believe In Ourselves Like They Do?

Answer: Miracles happen. Radical positive change takes place. Power replaces mediocrity… We obtain the growing conviction that we can realize our dreams, and improve our lives.


This is an exciting thought… isn’t it?


Some of you may want…


greater wealth,

a better job,

to be your own boss,

to become a better athlete,

to become a better musician or artist,

to have more energy,

to be a better husband or wife,

to become a top student,

to acquire the will power to eliminate bad habits or lose weight.

The “dream” list is infinite… and so is your potential to realize your dreams.


What’s critical is to learn how to start to achieve your goals, then DO IT!


3 Steps To Achieve Your Goals

STEP ONE: Ignite The Fire Within And Do Something!


Perhaps the greatest key to achieving your goals is passion. Determination springs from inspiration and/or desperation. You have to let loose with an almost fanatical passion to succeed, never allowing anything to get in your way of achieving your goal.


You have to act, and you have to stop listening to the “chickens”!


STEP TWO: Acquire Unnerving Energy And Discipline


Discipline is not a popular word, but it is essential for greatness.


Lukewarm attempts arrive at lukewarm results. Those who put in the extra mile, go the extra mile, it’s that simple. If there is a unifying thread that ties movers and shakers together in the world, it would be energy, and in almost all cases, some form of great discipline.


STEP THREE: Follow Proven Roadmaps To Success


No need to reinvent the wheel, others have gone before you, and have achieved what seemed to be impossible goals, follow their examples!


This last step can help us tremendously to develop the first two steps as well. By reading inspiring stories, seeing clear examples, witnessing impossible odds overcome, with clear roadmaps, can indeed give us more passion, more energy, more discipline.


This happens much like a microphone that goes into a continual loop of sound feedback… i.e. we get the inspiration to start, we see some small changes, this inspires us further to continue, and on and on and on… till our goal is achieved with a BOOM!


 3 Steps To Achieve Your Goals

 3 Steps To Achieve Your Goals

STEP ONE: Ignite The Fire Within And Do Something!

3 Steps To Achieve Your Goals
 3 Steps To Achieve Your Goals

Perhaps the greatest key to achieving your goals is passion. Determination springs from inspiration and/or desperation. You have to let loose with an almost fanatical passion to succeed, never allowing anything to get in your way of achieving your goal.


You have to act, and you have to stop listening to the “chickens”!


STEP TWO: Acquire Unnerving Energy And Discipline


Discipline is not a popular word, but it is essential for greatness.


Lukewarm attempts arrive at lukewarm results. Those who put in the extra mile, go the extra mile, it’s that simple. If there is a unifying thread that ties movers and shakers together in the world, it would be energy, and in almost all cases, some form of great discipline.


STEP THREE: Follow Proven Roadmaps To Success


No need to reinvent the wheel, others have gone before you, and have achieved what seemed to be impossible goals, follow their examples!


This last step can help us tremendously to develop the first two steps as well. By reading inspiring stories, seeing clear examples, witnessing impossible odds overcome, with clear roadmaps, can indeed give us more passion, more energy, more discipline.


This happens much like a microphone that goes into a continual loop of sound feedback… i.e. we get the inspiration to start, we see some small changes, this inspires us further to continue, and on and on and on… till our goal is achieved with a BOOM!


It all starts with one small step…


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The Relationship b/w Receptors and Memory

The Relationship b/w Receptors and Memory

The Relationship b/w Receptors and Memory
The Relationship b/w Receptors and Memory

 Researchers have been increasingly able to connect the person’s ability to remember the physical changes of the neurons. Memory is categorized as Short Term Memory (limited capacity) and Long Term Memory presumably for storage transfer. One of the important changes that occur in memory formation is Long-term Potentiation (LTP), where neurons that fire together gets wired together, is presumed to be a process underlying memory and learning.


Glutamate is the neurotransmitter that is involved in LTP. Glutamate binds to different types of receptors including NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate) and AMPA (a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate). Each opens a selective type of channels within the receptor protein and both channels are involved in memory formation. The protein molecules move back and forth over the nerve cell membrane that sends a signal when it combines with the neurotransmitter glutamate. An ion channel is opened in the receptor by this process thus allowing the ions to go into the neuron, which in turn creates a signal that enables the communication between neurons.


With neurodegenerative disorders, the channel closes quickly, which results in the sending of less information. A channel that opens longer would mean that more information is being sent. It compensates for the reduced glutamate level and in return enhances the memory. After the receptor is free of the glutamate, the receptor is now ready again to go through the same cycle of combining/binding, the flow of the ion, shutting down, and reactivation. Because AMPA receptors believed to help make memories, AMPA desensitization (a process on the receptor stopping the sodium ion to pass through the channel and preventing the channel from immediately opening up again) aids in improving memory.


The NMDA receptor is one of the main receptors, which is activated by glutamate and is sensitive to the glutamate agonist N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA). On the other hand, the other receptor is AMPA. AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors work in combination in order to produce a long-lasting change in synaptic formation that is associated with memory storage in the brain. It is believed that this action it involves the encoding of new memories. NMDA receptors have been demonstrated in functions such as the working and reference memory, olfactory memory (sense of smell), eye blinking, and reversal learning. While AMPA receptors on the other hand are mainly responsible for fast excitatory transmission, which is a process of signaling molecules that are released from the neurons bind in order to activate with another neuron. Inside the hippocampus, which is part of the brain that is undeniably important for memory, a release of glutamate from the presynaptic cell activates the AMPA receptor followed by the NM

DA receptor opening up. This allows the calcium ion to flow in where it triggers a series of events that are thought to be the basis for memory and learning.


Aside from eating a balanced diet, one must engage in physical and mental activities because this helps to maintain mental acuity. One can also take supplements to boost a person’s cognitive functions especially if one is getting older.


Oxidative Stress: What Is It And How Do You Overcome It?

 Oxidative Stress: What Is It And How Do You Overcome It?

In times of pressure and work overload, stress is the first thing that kicks into a person’s state of mind. Being under the clock and dealing with lots of problems definitely rattles the mind. Stress, to some people, is one way of motivating themselves as they purposely pressure themselves in order to meet their goal. Although it is a motivational factor to them, too much stress can lead to serious mental and physiological issues.


Stress may be categorized into many types depending on what has caused this unwanted condition. Some may have experienced stress due to emotional factors or have exceeded the limit of being pressured. One type of stress that is commonly experienced by most people is oxidative stress.


What is Oxidative Stress?

Oxidative stress is a type of stress that affects the regeneration of a person’s cell. Every day, millions of cells die and then regenerate back in order to replace the old ones. People who have oxidative stress have inadequate regenerated cells, which lead to the body’s poor performance. Once a person’s cell does not regenerate, it tends to have an effect on one’s body functions like cognitive activity and his or her physical appearance due to rapid aging.


Ways to Avoid Oxidative Stress

Although relaxation is the number one stress buster, science and medicine have paved the way to find immediate relief for oxidative stress. The number one remedy for this type of stress is by taking supplements that render as an antioxidant. Antioxidants help regenerate human cells. Antioxidants can also be found in some herbal supplements and in some foods. Nootropics or smart drugs with antioxidants are one of the supplements that can combat oxidative stress. Not only are Nootropics stress busters, it also gives many benefits to a person’s mind by increasing one’s intelligence and preventing other cognitive disorders.


Aside from taking supplements, it is essential for a person to get adequate amounts of sleep every day and to eat healthy foods. Taking a break from work once in a while is also a good way to stay away from stress. Going on a relaxing vacation can really empty your mind from the negative vibes that you battle every day.


Taking Nootropics and Antioxidants

Research has shown that an effective way to battle oxidative stress is by taking Nootropics with Antioxidants. Nootropics are safe as they are mostly herbal and not synthetic. In this way, you would not have to worry about having an overdose or experiencing severe side effects. Antioxidants protect your cell from free radicals that hinder regeneration. Nootropics, in general, aim to eliminate stress and improves a person’s cognitive activity. Under the supervision of your doctor, taking supplements is safe.

Memory: Use it or lose it|improve memory power

Memory: Use it or lose it


Memory: Use it or lose it improve memory power
Memory: Use it or lose it improve memory power


Have you ever felt that you are always misplacing things or forgetting objects daily? Have you ever walked into a room, then find out that you cannot remember the reason you went there? It seems that you are ignoring these daily disturbances and now you are doomed for tolerating it.


Memory is formed within the brain hence a healthy brain has a positive impact on memory. These are tips on improving memory:


1.Always pay attention. Avoid multi-tasking. The brain needs ample time to encode the information properly so having good attentive skills is a foundation for good memory.


2.Organize your thoughts. Writing down reminders or outlines and placing it in the car, home, and workplace is the best way to recall the important events or tasks to be done.


3.Involve as many senses as possible (touch, hear, smell, see and taste). For example, in a lecture setting one needs to listen well and scribble down some notes, which would help remember what is being taught.


4.Use Mnemonics. This is a technique, which helps us to remember. It remembers a complicated piece of information through imagery, acronyms, rhymes or song. Common examples: In memorizing the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, you just associate it with a sentence, My Very Excellent Mother Just Served Us Noodles. A child learning ABC’s by singing the Alphabet Song.


5.Train your brain. Mental challenges can build up new wire connections in the brain which aid in improving working memory along with other cognitive abilities. It is more effective and resistant to memory loss. Development of a new hobby such as learning a new language, reading novels, answering crossword puzzles or Sudoku, pushes the limits of your knowledge.


6.Healthy Lifestyle


•Getting enough sleep at least 7-9 hours a night may help build up a new memory from a day’s experience while sleep deprivation reduces the growth of new neurons in the brain.

•Exercise your body. Research shows that exercise reduces the toxic effect of stress and avoids the wear and tear of the brain from daily activities.

•Eat Healthy. Intake of plenty of fruits and green leafy vegetables contains antioxidants, which keep the brain from rusting.

•Avoid excessive alcohol and smoking. Studies show that they are linked to brain shrinkage and mental decline.


7.Do Repetitions. Repeat any useful information and memorize it. You can repeat it within the day or sleep over it then repeat it again the following day until you have the confidence that you knew it well enough.


Managing stress and eating the right foods, not only helps the mind to have good concentration, learning and avoiding memory lapses but good for the body too. A healthy brain is a healthy body. Supplementation can also support the proper food intake to make sure that one gets sufficient levels of vitamins and nutrients needed by the body each day.

Is Sugar Bad for Your Brain

Sugar is Bad for Your Brain

Is Sugar Bad for Your Brain
Is Sugar Bad for Your Brain



We Americans love our sugar and the more we eat, the more we crave,

On average, we consume 19.5 teaspoons a day or about 152 lbs. a year. That’s way too much. And no wonder. Studies indicate that sugar lights up the pleasure signals of the brain like cocaine – and is just as addictive. How much sugar is acceptable? The American Heart Association recommends we limit our intake to 9 teaspoons for men, 6 teaspoons for women, and 3 – 6 teaspoons for children. Another way to look at this is sugar accounts for 15 percent of the average American diet. Although we may be dumping teaspoons of sugar into our coffee or cereal, making it possible to keep track of our intake, most sugar is hidden in our processed food.


The most obvious processed foods that contain added sugar are baked goods like cookies and cakes. But added sugar also appears in bread, peanut butter, soups, bacon, salad dressings, yogurt, and many others, including one of the worst offenders, soft drinks. A 12 oz. regular cola contains over 9 teaspoons of sugar in the form of high fructose corn syrup.


Added sugars are sugars that don’t occur naturally in foods. According to researchers, 74 percent of all packaged foods contain some added sugar. Sugar can come with 61 different names so you can’t always know what you are eating. The most common sugar found in processed foods is fructose or high fructose corn syrup. Here are some other names: invert sugar, cane sugar abstract, dextrose, galactose, sorghum syrup, barley malt, fruit juice concentrate, lactose, maltose, maltodextrin, and so on.


Why is sugar bad for your brain? Here’s a simple explanation for a complex process. When we consume too much sugar, the pancreas releases a spike of insulin into the blood. Insulin spikes are damaging to the brain and other organs, causing inflammation, a major cause of preventable diseases. Too much insulin in the blood also leads to diabetes. According to the Center for Disease Control 25.8 million people or 8.3 percent of the population have diabetes. If that trend continues, a third of U.S. adults could have diabetes by 2051.


People with diabetes are twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia than those who have normal blood sugar. Diabetics may also experience brain shrinkage. Even in people who do not have diabetes but have above-normal blood sugar, there is an increased risk of Alzheimer’s, dementia, and brain shrinkage. And if that isn’t enough, sugar consumption increases the risk of heart disease and cancer, two major killers.


If you want to lower your risk for preventable diseases, including diabetes, reduce your sugar intake.


For more information see Chapter, 10, “Beware: Sugar and Sugar Substitutes” in Brain Health for Life, Beyond Pills, Politics, and Popular Diets available on this website and Amazon and other major distributors.